Small Scale In-Situ Burn tests to Develop Operational Proficiencies
MAC W. McCARTHY
Operational protocol was developed for a small-scale in-situ burn test of spilled crude oil. Initially, two styles of fire-resistant boom were deployed in open water and then evaluated. Later, at a permitted test facility, the same booms were exposed to multiple meso-scale test tank burns. Residual burned crude oil was recovered and the booms decontaminated. The small-scale test gave participants a high degree of confidence in what to expect should they be assigned to execute a full-scale in-situ burn at sea.
Air Cushioned Vehicles: Efficient Alternative Transportation for Spill Response
MAC W. McCARTHY, John McGrath
During the first 72 hours of a spill, the focus is on stabilization of the casualty and on open water recovery. As the oil moves into shallow water, technology often gives way to labor and the ensuing battle is won or lost on an efficient means of transporting a vast network of responders and their equipment. From an operations perspective, transportation alternatives can be evaluated, most simplistically, by two standards: speed and cargo capacity. How fast can resources be delivered to the site? What is the payload of the vehicle delivering the resources? As the life of the incident grows and more resources are committed to the project, the issues of delivery speed and delivery volume become more critical. The traditional means of transporting a response organization by land, air, or water always seem to leave a gap in efficiency, particularly when mounting a shoreline cleanup campaign. This paper seeks to build enthusiasm within the response community for viewing the air-cushioned vehicle (ACV) as the amphibious alternative in marine spill response transportation. Theory, case histories, and personal experience are used to develop support for planning ACVs into future response roles.
The Contribution of Air Cushioned Vehicles in Oil Spill Response
MAC W. McCARTHY and Captain John McGrath
On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. In response to this incident, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills.
Yup’ik Seal Hunters: Lessons in Subsistence on the Tundra
Subsistence hunting for marine mammals and sea birds is widely practiced by the Yup’ik people who reside on the west coast of Alaska. The practice not only culturally ties these indigenous people to their land but also provides them with a slim margin of freedom from the pressures of a growing cash economy. This article presents the subsistence lifestyle through the eyes of these hunters.